George Polti's 36 dramatic situations on film with Hannaleena Hauru

Aviorikos

Harjoite kuvattiin elokuussa 2011 osana Kino Euphoria -workshoppia, jonka järjesti Euphoria Borealis ry. Aviorikos-harjoitteen keskiössä oli draamallisen tilanteen osapuolille riittävän haastellisten olosuhteiden luominen. Halusin harjoitteessa painottaa asetelmaa, jossa ketään tilanteen osapuolista ei aseteta objektiksi, tai suoran mustavalkoiseen vastakohta-asetelmaan toisten osapuolten kanssa. Harjoite liittyy keskeisesti työni kirjalliseen osaan, ja esseeseen, jossa tarkastelen binaarisia vastakohtapareja.

Leikkasin marraskuussa 2011 vielä toisen version tästä harjoitteesta, sillä materiaalia kuvauksissa kertyi yli kolme tuntia.

TWENTY-FIFTH SITUATION

ADULTERY
(A Deceived Husband or Wife ; Two Adulterers)

Without deserving -to constitute a situation of itself
alone, Adultery yet presents an interesting aspect of
Theft (action from without) combined with Treason
(action within). Schiller, following the example of
Lope, was pleased to idealize brigandage ; Hugo and the
elder Dumas undertook for adultery a similar paradox ;
and, developing the process of antithesis by which were
created ”Triboulet” and ”Lucrece Borgia,” they suc-
ceeded, once for all and quite legitimately. The folly
lies in the belief of the unthinking crowd in the ex-
cellence of the subject thus presented; in the public’s
admiration for the ”Antonys” but the public has
ended by preferring the moving pictures to them.

First Case : The author portrays the Adulterer, the
stranger in the house, as much more agreeable, hand-
somer, more loving, bolder or stronger than the de-
ceived husband . . . Whatever arabesques may
cover the simple and fundamental fact of Larceny,
whatever complaisance may be shown by a tired public,
there remains nevertheless, beneath it all, a basis of
granite the old-fashioned conscience; to it, the thing
which is here vaunted is simply the breach of the Word
of Honor of a contract that word, that promise which
was obeyed by the Homeric gods and by the knights
of Chivalry no less than by ourselves; that base of
every social agglomeration; that which savages and
which convicts respect between themselves; that pri-
mary source of order in the world of action and of
thought. The spectators’ attention may of course be
momentarily turned from a point of view so strict,
and quite naturally; through the heresies of the im-
agination almost anything may evoke a laugh. Do we
not laugh heartily at the sight of a fat man tumbling
ridiculously down a flight of steps, at the bottom of
which he may break his neck? Anything, likewise,
may evoke our pity; we have pity for the perjuries of
the gambler and the drunkard, but it is mingled with
contempt. Now, is it this sort of sad contempt which
our dramatists wish to claim for their attractive young
adulterers, as the reward of so much care and effort?
If not, the effort has been a mistaken one.

Second Case: The Adulterer is represented as less
attractive and sympathetic than the unappreciated
husband. This forms the sort of play known as
”wholesome,” which as a matter of fact is merely tire-
some. A man whose pocket-book has been stolen does
not on that account grow greater in our eyes, and when
the information which he is in a position to furnish us
is once obtained, our attention is turned from him and
directed toward the thief. But if the latter, already
far from heroic in his exploit, is in turn portrayed as
still less interesting than his dupe, he merely disgusts
us and the adulterous wife appears but a fool to have
preferred him. Then (with that childishness which
most of us retain beneath our sophistication), scenting
a foregone conclusion in the lesson which the author
intends for us, and suspecting falsehood at the bottom
of it, we grimace with irritation, disappointed to per-
ceive, behind the story presented for our entertain-
ment, the vmegarish smile of the school-teacher.

Third Case: The deceived Husband or Wife is
Avenged. Here, at last, something happens ! But this
vengeance, unfortunately, is merely one of the cases
of the Third Situation.

Thus we shall not succeed with our Twenty-fifth
Situation except by treating it in a broadly human
spirit, without dolefumess and without austerity. It
will not be necessary to defend the thief nor the
traitor, nor to take the part of their dupe. To com-
prehend them all, to have compassion upon all, to ex-
plain them all which is to say to comprehend one-
self, to have pity upon oneself, and to explain oneself
this is the real work to be accomplished.

A A Mistress Betrayed; (1) For a Young Wom-
an: Sophocles’ ”Women of Colchis”; the ”Medeas” of
Seneca and of Corneille ; ”Miss Sara Sampson” by Les-
sing; ”Lucienne” (Gramont, 1890). These examples
are, because of the final vengeance, symmetrical to the
masculine of Class B.

(2) For a Young Wife (the marriage preceding the
opening of the play) : ”Un Voyage de Noces” (Tier-
celin, 1881).

(3)_For a Girl: ”La Veine” (Capus, 1901).

(B) A Wife Betrayed: (1) For a Slave, Who
Does Not Love in Return: ”Maidens of Trachis” by
Sophocles; ”Hercules on (Eta” by Seneca (the first
part; as to the rest, see ”Imprudence”) ; the ”Andro-
mache” of Euripides anoT that of Racine (in which this
is one side of the drama ; for the other, see ”Sacrifices
for Kinsmen”).

(2) For Debauchery: ”Numa Roumestan” by
Daudet; ”Francillon” by Dumas; ”Serge Panine” by
Ohnet; the opening part of ”Meres Ennemies,” which
afterward turns to ”Hatred of Kinsmen.”

(3) For a Married Woman (a double adultery) :
”La Princesse Georges” and ”L’Etrangere” by Dumas ;
”Monsieur de Morat” (Tarbe, 1887) ; ”Les Menages do
Paris” (Raymond, 1886) ; ”Le Depute Leveau” (Le-
ns aitre).

(4)_With the Intention of Bigamy: The ”Al-
mseons of Sophocles and of Euripides.

(5) For a Young Girl, Who Does Not Love in Re
turn : Shakespeare’s ”Henry VIII,” and that of Saint-
Saens; Alfieri’s ”Rosamonde” (a combination of the
present and the preceding situations, for it is also a
simple Rivalry of King and Subject).

(6) A Wife Envied by a Young Girl Who is in Love
With Her Husband : ”Stella” by Goethe; ”Dernier
Amour” (Ohnet, 1890).

(7) By a Courtesan: ”Miss Fanfare” (Ganderax,
1881, see B 2) ; ”Proserpine” (Vacquerie and Saint-
Sae’ns, 1887) ; ”La Comtesse Fredegonde” (Amigues,
1887); ”Myrane” (Bergeat, 1890).

(8) Rivalry Between a Lawful Wife Who is Anti-
pathetic and a Mistress Who is Congenial: ”C’est la
Loi” (Cliquet, 1882) ; ”Les Affranchis” (Madame Len-
eru, 1911).

(9) Between a Generous Wife and an Impassioned
Girl: ”La Vierge Folle” (Bataille, 1910) ; ”La Femme
de Demain” (Arthur Lefebvre, 1909).

C (1) An Antagonistic Husband Sacrificed for a
Congenial Lover: ”Angelo;” ”Le Nouveau Monde” by
Villiers de 1’Isle Adam; ”Un Drole” (Yves Guyot,
1889) ; ”Le Mari” (Nus and Arnould, 1889) ; ”Les Ten–
ailles” (Hervieu) ; ”Le Torrent” (Donnay) ; ”Decad-
ence” (Guinon, 1901) ; ”Page Blanche” (Devore, 1909).

(2) A Husband, Believed to be Lost, Forgotten for
a Rival: ”Rhadamiste et Zenobie” by Crebillon;
”Jacques Damour” by Zola. The ”Zenobie” of
Metastasio, by the faithful love retained for her
husband, forms a case unique (!) among the innumer-
able dramas upon adulterous passions. Compare ”Le
Dedale” (see XXIV, A 12).

(3) A Commonplace Husband Sacrificed for a
Sympathetic Lover: ”Diane de Lys” by Dumas;
”Tristan and Isolde” by Wagner (with the addition of
”Madness,” produced by a love-potion) ; ”Franchise de
Rimini” (A. Thomas, 1882) ; ”La Serenade” (Jean Jul-
lien, 1887) ; ”L’Age Critique” (Byl, 1890) ; ”Antoinette
Sabrier” (Coolus, 1903) ; ”La Montansier” (Jeofrin, de
Flers and de Caillavet, 1904) ; ”Connais-toi” (Hervieu,
1909). The same case without adultery: ”Sigurd”
(Reyer, 1885) ; ”La Comtesse Sarah” (1886).

(4) A Good Husband Betrayed for an Inferior
Rival: ”L’Aveu” (Sarah Bernhard, 1888) ; ”Revoltee”
(Lemaitre, 1889) ; ”La Maison des Deux Barbeaux”
(Theuriet, 1885) ; ”Andre del Sarte” (Alfred de Mus-
set) ; ”La Petite Paroisse” (Daudet, 1911) ; ”Le Man-
nequin d’Osier” (France, 1904) ; ”La Rencontre”
(Berton, 1909) . Cases of preference without adultery :
”Smilis” by Aicard; ”Les Jacobines” by Hermant
(1907).

(5) For a Grotesque Rival: ”The Fatal Dowry”
by Massinger.

r^_^o* an Odious Rival: ”Gerfaut” (from C. de
Bernard, by Moreau, 1886) ; ”Cceur a Coeur ’ (Cooms,
1907).

(7) For a Commonplace Rival, By a Perverse
Wife: ”La Femme de Claude” by Dumas; ”Pot-
Bouille” by Zola; ”Rivoli” (Fauchois. 1911) : ”Les
Malefilatre” (Porto-Riche, 1904); ”Soeurette”
(Borteau-Loti). In fiction: ”Madame Bovary.”

(8) For a Rival Less Handsome, but Useful (with
comic false suspicions; that is, suspicions afterward
thought to have been false) : ”L’Echeance” (Jean
Jullien, 1889).

D (1) Vengeance of a Deceived Husband (dramas
built upon a crescendo of suspicion) : ”The Physician
of His Own Honor” and ”Secret Vengeance for Secret
Outrage” by Calderon; ”L’Affaire Clemenceau” by
Dumas ; ”The Kreutzer Sonata” (after Tolstoi. 1910) ;
”La Legende du Cceur” (Aicard, 1903) ; ”Paraitre”
(Donnay, 1906) ; ”Les Miroirs” (Roinarrd) ; ”The
Enigma” by Hervieu (which borrows something from
Situation XI of this name. A vengeance purely moral :
”Apres Moi” (Bernstein, 1911); financial: ”Samson,”
by the same author, (1907).

(2) Jealousy Sacrificed for the Sake of a Cause:
(tending toward ”Sacrifices for an Ideal”) : ”Les
Jacobites” (Coppee, 1885) ; ”Patrie” (Paladilhe, 1886).
Sacrificed out of Pity: ”La Famille d’Armelles”
(Marras, 1883).

E A Husband Persecuted by a Rejected Rival:
”Raoul de Crequi” (Delayrac, 1889). This case is
symmetrical to B 7, and both proceed in the direction
of ”Murderous Adultery.”