George Polti's 36 dramatic situations on film with Hannaleena Hauru

Research Methods

Research Methods

Fight Club, The Lion King, Eternal Sunset of The Spotless Mind, Twilight,

Biographic research

1800’s, Hippolyte Taine

Author as the base for research

(Russian) formalism 1914-1927 

Focus is on the structure – not the content!

New Crisicism

mostly 1940-1950’s, US

– T.S.Eliots & I.A.Richards’ essays

– abandoning the biographical background – Focuses on ”objectively” evaluating the text, identifying its underlying form. May study, for example, a text’s use of imagery, metaphor, or symbolism. Isn’t concerned with matters outside the text, such as biographical or contextual information.


Criticism Focuses on each reader’s personal reactions to a text, assuming meaning is created by a reader’s or interpretive community’s personal interaction with a text. Assumes no single, correct, universal meaning exists because meaning resides in the minds of readers.


Criticism Focuses on understanding ways gender roles are reflected or contradicted by texts, how dominance and submission play out in texts, and how gender roles evolve in texts.

Media Criticism

Focuses on writers’ use of multimedia and hypertexts.

Psychoanalytical Criticism

Focuses on psychological dimensions of the work.

Marxist Criticism

ways texts reflect, reinforce, or challenge the effects of class, power relations, and social roles.

Archetypal Criticism

identifying the underlying myths in stories and archetypes, which reflect what the psychologist Carl Jung called the ”collective unconsciousness.

Postcolonial Criticism

How Western culture’s (mis)representation of third-world countries and peoples in stories, myths, and stereotypical images encourages repression and domination.

Structuralism/Semiotics Focuses on literature as a system of signs where meaning is constructed in a context, where words are inscribed with meaning by being compared to other words and structures.


Focuses, along with Structuralism, on viewing literature as a system of signs, yet rejects the Structuralist view that a critic can identify the inherent meaning of a text, suggesting, instead that literature has no center, no single interpretation, that literary language is inherently ambiguous