Fight Club, The Lion King, Eternal Sunset of The Spotless Mind, Twilight,
1800’s, Hippolyte Taine
Author as the base for research
(Russian) formalism 1914-1927
Focus is on the structure – not the content!
mostly 1940-1950’s, US
– T.S.Eliots & I.A.Richards’ essays
– abandoning the biographical background – Focuses on ”objectively” evaluating the text, identifying its underlying form. May study, for example, a text’s use of imagery, metaphor, or symbolism. Isn’t concerned with matters outside the text, such as biographical or contextual information.
Criticism Focuses on each reader’s personal reactions to a text, assuming meaning is created by a reader’s or interpretive community’s personal interaction with a text. Assumes no single, correct, universal meaning exists because meaning resides in the minds of readers.
Criticism Focuses on understanding ways gender roles are reflected or contradicted by texts, how dominance and submission play out in texts, and how gender roles evolve in texts.
Focuses on writers’ use of multimedia and hypertexts.
Focuses on psychological dimensions of the work.
ways texts reflect, reinforce, or challenge the effects of class, power relations, and social roles.
identifying the underlying myths in stories and archetypes, which reflect what the psychologist Carl Jung called the ”collective unconsciousness.
How Western culture’s (mis)representation of third-world countries and peoples in stories, myths, and stereotypical images encourages repression and domination.
Structuralism/Semiotics Focuses on literature as a system of signs where meaning is constructed in a context, where words are inscribed with meaning by being compared to other words and structures.
Focuses, along with Structuralism, on viewing literature as a system of signs, yet rejects the Structuralist view that a critic can identify the inherent meaning of a text, suggesting, instead that literature has no center, no single interpretation, that literary language is inherently ambiguous